Native american subarctic tribes. At first, the map functioned as a “resource pointed at se...

Eastern Woodlands Indians, aboriginal peoples of North Amer

Native American tribes are found throughout the United States, with each region being home to a unique set of tribes. These regions include the Southwest, Plains, Northeast, Southeast, Pacific Northwest, Arctic and Subarctic, Great Basin, and California. Each region is characterized by its own distinct geography, climate, and natural …Arctic - Eurasian, Subarctic, Peoples: In northern Eurasia there is no division corresponding to that in northern North America between the exclusively tundra- and coastal-dwelling Yupiit, Unangan (Aleut), and Inuit and the Native American groups that dwell partially or wholly within the taiga, or boreal forest. With the exception of the inhabitants of the coastal regions around the Bering ...Native American Society. For thousands of years before the Europeans landed on the continent, Native Americans settled all across the Americas. Beginning with the crossing of a land bridge 12,000 years ago that stretched from Asia to North America, approximately 10 million people would settle in the area that would later become the United States.In the Northwest region, Native Americans lived in plank houses. These homes were made from long, flat planks of cedar wood attached to a wooden frame. ... an ecosystem of coniferous forest and large marshes. Subarctic peoples traditionally used a variety of technologies to cope with the cold northern winters and were adept in the …Reaching North: A Celebration of the Subarctic. Red Deer: Red Deer Press, 2002. Corwin, Judith Hoffman. Native American Crafts of the Northwest Coast, the Arctic, and the Subarctic. New York: Franklin Watts, 2002. Cruikshank, Julie, with Angela Sidney, Kitty Smith, and Annie Ned. Life Lived Like a Story: Life Stories of Three Yukon Native Elders.Native American - Tribes, Culture, History: Outside of the Southwest, Northern America’s early agriculturists are typically referred to as Woodland cultures. ... The Subarctic Indians and the Arctic peoples; The chessboard of empire: the late 17th to the early 19th century. Eastern North America and the Subarctic. Queen Anne’s War (1702 ...Longhouses are Native American homes used by the Iroquois tribes and some of their Algonquian neighbors. They are built similarly to wigwams, with pole frames and elm bark covering. The main difference is that longhouses are much, much larger than wigwams. Longhouses could be 200 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 20 feet high.Photograph of Native Americans from Southeastern Idaho taken from the Handbook of North American Indians. The Handbook of North American Indians is a series of edited scholarly and reference volumes in Native American studies, published by the Smithsonian Institution beginning in 1978. Planning for the handbook series began in the late 1960s …Whether you are learning about Native American tribes in November, as it is Native American Heritage Month, or as part of your social studies class in general, discover an abundance of helpful information here. Learn names of many of the tribes and where they lived as well as the unique skills they acquired as they survived and thrived in their specific regions.Name Anishinaabe Thunderbird or Aanimkii-benishiinh, designed by freehand sign painter Grand Chief Ben Wawia Pictograph of a canoe (top left), Mishipeshu (top right), and two giant serpents (chi'gnebikoog), panel VIII, Agawa Rock, Lake Superior Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯ Anishinaabe has many different spellings. Different spelling …Oct 10, 2023 · Arctic & Subarctic Regions. The Arctic Cultural Region is along the Arctic Circle and includes parts of Alaska and Northern Canada. The Native Americans, like the Inupiak, who settled there had to ... Subarctic Indians. Subarctic Indians are the Native Americans who have traditionally lived close to the arctic region. They occupied an area which mostly comprised of tundra, forests of pines as well as swampy areas. Notable subarctic Native American tribes include the Cree, Naskapi and Ojibwa.Researchers use culture areas — the geographic locations that influenced societies — to help them describe ancient Native American peoples. North America is divided into several culture areas. ... The far north of North America is divided into the Arctic and Subarctic culture areas. Few plants grow in the Arctic becuase the ground is always ...Native Americans in the United States. Total: 9,666,058 ~ 2.9% of the total U.S. population. Comanche Indians Chasing Buffalo with Lances and Bows, a mid-19th century portrait depicting the Comanche tribe by George Catlin, now on display at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C.They consumed salmon, whales, seals, caribou (and the partially digested greens in their stomachs), moose, squirrels, walrus, narwhals, shellfish, birds, berries, bears, wolverines, foxes. seals, polar bears, narwhal and beluga whales, cod and other Arctic fish, ptarigans, owls, guillmot eggs, and walruses. Although they ate mainly meats ... American Indians at European Contact Originally published as "Earliest American Explorers: Adventure and Survival". by John W. Kincheloe, III Used with permission from Tar Heel Junior Historian 47: 1 (Fall 2007): 6-8, copyright North Carolina Museum of History.. European explorers came to the "New World" o f North America in …Sep 7, 2019 · The Native American dropout rate is twice the nation’s average and is more than any other U.S racial or ethnic group. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, the average high school retention rate was at 74 percent between 2018 and 2019, compared to the national average of 86 percent. Last Edited January 11, 2023. In Canada, the term Indigenous peoples (or Aboriginal peoples) refers to First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples. These are the original inhabitants of the land that is now …The Native American groups of the Arctic and Subarctic consist of two major genetic and linguistic populations—the Northern Athapaskan Indians and the Eskimo. In Alaska and Canada, the Eskimo are generally coastal people who are believed to have entered North America some 9,000 years ago.Learn about Native American tribes and leaders like Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and Tecumseh, and events like the Trail of Tears, the French and Indian War, the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the ...Sep 9, 2012 · Published Online September 9, 2012. Last Edited May 18, 2021. Cree are the most populous and widely distributed Indigenous peoples in Canada. Other words the Cree use to describe themselves include nehiyawak, nihithaw, nehinaw and ininiw. Cree First Nations occupy territory in the Subarctic region from Alberta to Quebec , as well as portions of ... By 1500 BC the people who lived in the North American Southwest, like those who lived in Mesoamerica, were growing maize. One of the early farm cultures in the Southwest was the Anasazi. The Anasazi lived in the Four Corners region, where present-day Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah meet. Anasazi farmers adapted to their dry …The native people of the Pacific Northwest had well-developed political systems and were among the most prosperous and densely populated of Native Americans. Coastal tribes depended on fish, seals, sea otters, and beached whales for food and materials, which they procured with nets and clubs.The SUBARCTIC indians shelter. The subarctic Indians build all kinds of house with the materials that were found near by. Not only that they build igloos but they also build pit houses, tepees,huts, and wigwams. Most of the arctic Indians were nomadic which means they didn't always settle down and live in one place only.From the beginning, Native American peoples had many ways of getting food, the techniques usually depended on their tribe and area. The methods include hunting, trapping, fishing, gathering and farming. Primarily the males would go out to hunt and the women would then clean the animal, prepare it for cooking, storing, and for other resources.Oct. 17, 2023, 5:13 AM ET (CBC) Oct. 16, 2023, 4:34 AM ET (CBC) Innu, also called Montagnais and Naskapi, North American Indian peoples who spoke almost identical Algonquian dialects and whose cultures differed chiefly in their adaptation to their respective environments. The southern Innu, or Montagnais, traditionally occupied a large forested ...Native Americans, also known as American Indians and Indigenous Americans, are the indigenous peoples of the United States. ... The Subarctic culture area, mostly composed of swampy, piney forests ...The Plains Indians culture area is to the west; the Subarctic area to the north. The Indigenous people of the Eastern Woodlands spoke languages belonging to several language groups, including Algonquian , [2] Iroquoian , [2] Muskogean , and Siouan , as well as apparently isolated languages such as Calusa , Chitimacha , Natchez , Timucua ...Population size for Native American tribes is difficult to state definitively, ... Subarctic & Arctic Canada Sask. Woods Cree in Sask. 5,600 1670 James Mooney: 32b Subarctic & Arctic Canada Manitoba Cree living in Manitoba: 4,250 1670 James Mooney: 32c Subarctic & Arctic Canada Alberta Woodland Cree in Alberta 3,050 1670 James Mooney: 32d …The location of the Great Basin and Plateau region allowed the tribes living there to develop a trade network with Native American groups from other regions. For instance, tribes like the Pend d’Oreille (pawn duh-RAY) and Umatilla (um-uh-TIL-uh) traded hides, roots, and baskets to coastal tribes in exchange for shell beads and oils.All Tribes Spirit Army - Reaching out to Native Americans of All Tribes with the Revolutionary Gospel of Jesus Christ the Lord! Jesus has a calling for Natives of All Tribes to rise up and get aggressive for Jesus. Come to Jesus, come to Life! Be a Spirit Warrior for Jesus, and spread the Truth of the Gospel to this generation! In this video you …The low estimates for pre-contact Native American populations proposed by ... The only culture area that lies in a largely treeless region of snow and ice for most of the year is the Subarctic. ... The term “berdache” refers to a war trophy, such as a scalp, taken by warriors of some Native American tribes. false. 12. Native American ...From the early 1800s through the 1930s, official U.S. policy displaced thousands of Native Americans from their ancestral homes through the policy known as Indian removal. And throughout the 20th ...The native people of the Pacific Northwest had well-developed political systems and were among the most prosperous and densely populated of Native Americans. Coastal tribes depended on fish, seals, sea otters, and beached whales for food and materials, which they procured with nets and clubs.Native American - Tribes, Culture, History: The Great Basin culture area is centred in the intermontane deserts of present-day Nevada and includes adjacent areas in California, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona. It is so named because the surrounding mountains create a bowl-like landscape that prevented water from flowing out of the region. The most common ...Europeans carried a hidden enemy to the Indians: new diseases. Native peoples of America had no immunity to the diseases that European explorers and colonists brought with them. Diseases such as smallpox, influenza, measles, and even chicken pox proved deadly to American Indians. Europeans were used to these diseases, but Indian people had no ...The Subarctic region covers most of Canada and parts of Alaska. The terrain is characterized by boreal forests, tundra, and grasslands. It stretches from the shores of …Arctic and Sub-Arctic Cultural Area Discover - Experience – Connect www.mitchellmuseum.org Page 1 of 10 Mitchell Museum of the American Indian Arctic/Subarctic Culture Map The Arctic Culture Area includes a small part of Alaska and northern Canada, from the western to the eastern ocean. Here, winters are long and harsh, and summers are short ...Northwest Coast Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples inhabiting a narrow belt of Pacific coastland and offshore islands from the southern border of Alaska to northwestern California. Learn more about the history and culture of the Northwest Coast Indians in this article.The Subarctic culture area, mostly composed of swampy, piney forests (taiga) and waterlogged tundra, stretched across much of inland Alaska and Canada. The region's people are divided into two language groups: the Athabaskan speakers at its western end, among them the Tsattine (Beaver), Gwich’in and the Deg Xinag, and the Algonquian speakers at its eastern end, including the Cree, the Ojibwa ...According to the 2011 Canadian Census, Indigenous peoples ( First Nations – 851,560, Inuit – 59,445 and Métis – 451,795) numbered at 1,400,685, or 4.3% of the country's total …Indigenous Peoples of the Arctic, Subarctic, and Northwest Coast. Native American Tribes. The indigenous peoples of North America and Greenland have long ...2016. 7. 23. ... Though Subarctic tribes mostly practiced matrilineal descent, the treatment of women varied from tribe. Some women were treated as no more ...Northeast Indian, member of any of the Native American peoples living roughly between the taiga, the Ohio River, and the Mississippi River at the time of European contact, including speakers of Algonquian, Iroquois, and Siouan languages. The most elaborate of the political organizations was the Iroquois Confederacy.Tribes in Maine left out of Native American resurgence by 40-year-old federal law denying their self-determination. Feb 14, 2023. Removing dams from the Klamath River is a step toward justice for ...Yellowknife, also called Tatsanottine, a small Athabaskan-speaking North American Indian tribe who traditionally lived northeast of the Great Bear and Great Slave lakes in what is now the Northwest Territories, Can.The name Yellowknife derives from the group’s use of yellow copper in making knives and other tools. In language and culture …In this video I'll briefly talk about a subarctic Native American tribe, the Innu. Enjoyed the horrible video? Hit like and subscribe 😉 Sources:Fay, A. (20...Sub-Arctic Tribes Location: Most of present-day Canada and most of Interior, Western and South Central Alaska >>Long cold winters with heavy snowfall. >>Northern Forest of evergreen pine and fir trees, a few deciduous trees like birch and willows. >>Numerous lakes and rivers The Subarctic regions of the Americas are located south of the true Arctic. This region includes the interior of Alaska ...Tipi. A tipi ( / ˈtiːpiː / " TEE-pee "), often called a lodge in English, is a conical tent, historically made of animal hides or pelts, and in more recent generations of canvas, stretched on a framework of wooden poles. The word is Siouan, and in use in Dakhótiyapi, [1] Lakȟótiyapi, [2] and as a loanword in US and Canadian English, where ...Headwear of Native American Cultures The hairstyles and headwear of the Native American tribes and the indigenous peoples of the Subarctic and Arctic are many and varied. Styles differed from tribe to tribe, and within tribes due to gender, age, and social status. There were several thousands of specific styles of hair or headwear but also …Arizona is home to 22 tribes, each with its own rich history, culture, language and land base. In the last decade, the Heard Museum has worked to develop professional relationships with American Indian tribes. The relationships are based on mutual trust and active participation, and have repositioned the Heard away from the traditional museum …Tribe Will Harness Power of the Sun to Offset Key Facilities' Energy Use by 92%. In this Tribal energy snapshot, learn more about the Karuk Tribe's Community Scale Solar Energy Generating Systems project. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy. A 948-kilowatt (kW) ground-mounted solar ...Indian Tribes and Languages of the Subarctic Subarctic Culture Area. This is an index to the Native American language and cultural information on our website pertaining to Subarctic Indian tribes. Tribes of the Subarctic Culture Group Ahtna Tribe Babine-Wet'suwet'en Tribe Beaver Tribe Beothuk TribeWhether you are learning about Native American tribes in November, as it is Native American Heritage Month, or as part of your social studies class in general, discover an abundance of helpful information here. Learn names of many of the tribes and where they lived as well as the unique skills they acquired as they survived and thrived in their specific regions.Arctic & Subarctic Regions. The Arctic Cultural Region is along the Arctic Circle and includes parts of Alaska and Northern Canada. The Native Americans, like the Inupiak, who settled there had to ...The subarctic people often hunted moose, caribou, hare, musk oxen, bear and elk, as well as waterfowl and fish. The edible wild plants they collected included berries, tripe, dandelions, moss and marigold. Berries were dried in the fall or stored in baskets put in pits in the ground. Pemmican, a mixture of berries, grease and animal meat, was a ...By Region. Arctic/Subarctic - These Native Americans survived some of the coldest weather on the planet. They include the Inuit people of Alaska who lived primarily off of whale and seal meat. Californian - Tribes living in the area that is today the state of California such as the Mohave and the Miwok.; Great Basin - This is a dry area and was one of the last to have contact with Europeans.Subarctic peoples from Alaska are often collectively referred to as Native Alaskans, while in Canada they are known as First Nations peoples. Although some Inuit peoples also live in the Subarctic culture area, …Algonquian Peoples. One of the most populous and widespread Native American groups, Algonquian tribes consist of peoples that speak Algonquian languages and historically shared cultural similarities. There are hundreds of original tribes that spoke several related dialects of the language group. Historically, they lived across eastern North ... Match · Arctic/Subarctic. These Native Americans survived some of the coldest weather on the planet. · Californian. Tribes living in the area that is today the ...Inuit, pejorative Eskimo, group of culturally and linguistically unique Indigenous peoples of the Arctic and subarctic regions whose homelands encompass Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland, a self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark), Arctic Canada, northern and southwestern Alaska in the United States, and part of Chukotka in the Far East region of Russia.Eastern Woodlands Indians, aboriginal peoples of North America whose traditional territories were east of the Mississippi River and south of the subarctic boreal forests. The Eastern Woodlands Indians are treated in a number of articles. For the traditional cultural patterns and contemporary lives.Arctic - Inuit, Indigenous, Subarctic: The Inuit and Unangan ( Aleuts) inhabit the treeless shores and tundra-covered coastal hinterlands of northernmost North America and Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat). Because of their close social, genetic, and linguistic relations to Yupik speakers in Alaska, the Yupik-speaking peoples living near the Bering Sea in Siberia are often discussed with these ... Arctic - Inuit, Indigenous, Subarctic: The Inuit and Unangan ( Aleuts) inhabit the treeless shores and tundra-covered coastal hinterlands of northernmost North America and Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat). Because of their close social, genetic, and linguistic relations to Yupik speakers in Alaska, the Yupik-speaking peoples living near the Bering Sea in Siberia are often discussed with these ... There were 29 Native American tribes that lived in the American Great Plains. The more famous of those tribes include the Cheyenne, Comanche, Blackfoot, Sioux and the Plains Apache.They also became skilled at breaking wild horses and domesticating them for tribal use. #20. Tlingit-Haida (Alaska Native) - Tribe alone or in any combination: 30,878. - Tribe alone: 15,160. The Tlingit Nation and Haida Nation exist as two separate and distinct entities, but both nations live in southeast Alaska.Arizona is home to 22 tribes, each with its own rich history, culture, language and land base. In the last decade, the Heard Museum has worked to develop professional relationships with American Indian tribes. The relationships are based on mutual trust and active participation, and have repositioned the Heard away from the traditional museum …The Handbook of North American Indians is a series of edited scholarly and reference volumes in Native American studies, published by the Smithsonian Institution beginning in 1978. Planning for the handbook series began in the late 1960s and work was initiated following a special congressional appropriation in fiscal year 1971. [1]... Subarctic to the Southwest and subsequently spreading their language and culture by assimilating members of native Southwestern tribes. This study provides ...Native Peoples of the Subarctic kids' book from the leading digital reading ... Explore Native American Cultures!Alaskan AthabaskanNameAlaskan Athabaskan (pronounced uh-LAS-ken ath-uh-PAS-ken; also spelled “Athapascan”). The name came from the Canadian lake the Cree called Athabasca, which means “grass here and there.” The Cree also applied the name to the Natives who lived on the opposite side of the lake. Today the term also refers to the …The Archaic Subarctic Tradition represents Athabascan and Algonkian Indians hunting and gathering in the boreal Subarctic forests. These were American Indian people that were the last group of what are referred to as American Indians that came into the Far North but went into the boreal forest of the Subartic around 10,000 BP. Hunting caribou in the north …Yupik – An Alaska native tribe that are related to the Inuit people, and are also known as “Eskimos.”. The Yupik who live along the Western coast of Alaska. Kalaallit – An Inuit tribe of Greenland. Arctic Tribes of North America Crossword Puzzle. Arctic Tribes of North America Crossword Puzzle – ANSWER KEY.The "Great Basin" is a cultural classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas and a cultural region located between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in what is now Nevada, and parts of Oregon, California, Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah. The Great Basin region at the time of European contact was ~400,000 sq mi (1,000,000 km 2 ). [1]All in all, as for this essay, the focus lies on comparing the lives of three Native American tribes of the Southwest, which are the Navajo, Tohono O’odham (Papago), and the Apache; moreover, the essay is aimed at communicating a biography of each tribe, analyzingthe factors that impacted their attitudes as well as the 4 contributions that the tribes made to …Mar 7, 2012 · Slavey Indian camp at Fort Providence, NWT, date unknown (courtesy Library and Archives of Canada/PA-051411).\r Slavey (also Awokanak, Slave, Deh Gah Got'ine or Deh Cho) are a major group of Athapaskan-speaking (or Dene ) people living in the boreal forest region of the western Canadian Subarctic. Also in the late nineteenth century, several gold rushes occurred in the western Subarctic and a large number of non-Indians entered the region. This had a considerable impact on both environment and the Indians, many of whom worked as laborers. Disease also devastated Native populations, although isolated groups were somewhat protected.For the 400,000 Indigenous people living in the Arctic, this scenario reflects the reality of life in one of the world’s harshest climates. To survive in this environment, residents have had to ...American Subarctic peoples - Nomadic, Hunting, Lodges: In pursuit of a livelihood, families and local bands shifted their location as the seasons changed. In northwest Canada, groups scattered in early winter to hunt caribou in the mountains; elsewhere, autumn drew people to the shorelines of lakes and bays where large numbers of ducks and geese could be taken for the winter larder.Mi’kmaq, the largest of the Native American (First Nations) peoples traditionally occupying what are now Canada’s eastern Maritime Provinces and parts of the present U.S. states of Maine and Massachusetts. It is thought that the Mi’kmaq settled the area later than other regional tribes.In the past, Native Americans communicated in three different ways. Although the tribes varied, they all used some form of spoken language, pictographs and sign language. The spoken language varied among the major tribes, and within each tr...American Subarctic peoples, Native American peoples whose traditional area of residence is the subarctic region of Alaska and Canada. Those from Alaska are often referred to in aggregate as Native Alaskans, while in Canada they are known as First Nations peoples (see Sidebar: Tribal Nomenclature: American Indian, Native American, and First Nation).Native American cultural areas. In Native American: The Subarctic. This region lies south of the Arctic and encompasses most of present-day Alaska and most of Canada, excluding the Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island), which are part of the Northeast culture area. The topography is relatively flat, the ... See also Native American: Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. John J. Honigmann Elizabeth Prine Pauls. American Subarctic peoples - Animism, …They also became skilled at breaking wild horses and domesticating them for tribal use. #20. Tlingit-Haida (Alaska Native) - Tribe alone or in any combination: 30,878. - Tribe alone: 15,160. The Tlingit Nation and Haida Nation exist as two separate and distinct entities, but both nations live in southeast Alaska.The native people of the Pacific Northwest had well-developed political systems and were among the most prosperous and densely populated of Native Americans. Coastal tribes depended on fish, seals, sea otters, and beached whales for food and materials, which they procured with nets and clubs.Arizona is home to 22 tribes, each with its own rich history, culture, language and land base. In the last decade, the Heard Museum has worked to develop professional relationships with American Indian tribes. The relationships are based on mutual trust and active participation, and have repositioned the Heard away from the traditional museum …Essentially, it does two things: First, it confers certain rights on all persons who are subject to the jurisdiction of a tribal government. Second, it authorizes federal courts to enforce many of these rights.” —Stephen L. Pevar, The Rights of Indians and Tribes: The Basic ACLU Guide to Indian and Tribal Rights, 1992. Theme.The Creek Indians, a Southeast tribe originally settled in Georgia and Alabama, judged the world to be flat and square. The sky was roofed with a solid vault, and the celestial domain belonged to meteors, the Milky Way, the moon, and the sun. The god of the sky and some of the spirits of the dead lived on the dome.Subarctic Indians. Subarctic Indians are the Native Americans who have traditionally lived close to the arctic region. They occupied an area which mostly comprised of tundra, forests of pines as well as swampy areas. Notable subarctic Native American tribes include the Cree, Naskapi and Ojibwa. . Summary: A large-scale genetic study of native North Americans offers The first peoples in the Americas lived ther The name Hän or Han is a shortening of their own name as Hwëch'in / Han Hwech’in, and of the Gwich’in word Hangʷičʼin for the Hän, both literally meaning "People of the River, i.e. the Yukon River". This word has been spelled variously as Hankutchin, Han-Kootchin, Hun-koo-chin, Hong-Kutchin, An Kutchin, Han Kutchin, Han-Kutchín, Hăn ...Eskimo (/ ˈ ɛ s k ɪ m oʊ /) is an exonym used to refer to two closely related Indigenous peoples: the Inuit (including the Alaska Native Iñupiat, the Canadian Inuit, and the Greenlandic Inuit) and the Yupik (or Yuit) of eastern Siberia and Alaska.A related third group, the Aleut, which inhabit the Aleutian Islands, are generally excluded from the … Reaching North: A Celebration of the Subarctic. From the early 1800s through the 1930s, official U.S. policy displaced thousands of Native Americans from their ancestral homes through the policy known as Indian removal. And throughout the 20th ...Heavier-duty boots called mukluks were the invention of the Inuit (Eskimos) , who made them of sealskin, fur, and reindeer hide; some subarctic Indian tribes adapted the mukluk style of boots through trade or other contact with the Inuit, using caribou or buckskin instead of sealskin. Native American moccasin design has stood the test of time ... Native American, member of any of the aboriginal peoples...

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